Modification and Manipulations of DNA

DNA: Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA) is a heredity material in almost organism. Most of DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell. DNA molecule is made-up of nucleotide.

Nature designed a specific system by which organisms replicate themselves means it is a biological process by which new individual organisms are produced from their parent.
In human being sexual reproduction resulting from interaction between male and female reproductive organ. The process while these specialized reproductive cells created called meiosis.
During meiosis cells needed for sexual reproduction divide to produce new cells called gametes.
Chromosomes: In human every normal cell contains 46 chromosomes means in form of 23 pairs. Out of which 22 pairs or 44 chromosomes are known as non-sex chromosomes while ‘XX’ is specific in female and ‘XY’ in male and these are termed as sex chromosomes.
The two chromosomes in a homologous pair are very similar to one another and have a same size and same shape. Other than this, they also contain the same type of genetic information. Basically, chromosomes carry all the information used to help a cell grow, thrive and reproduce.
These are made up of DNA segment in a specific pattern that we called ‘genes’.

Mention Diagram of Chromosome

DNA: Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid (DNA) is a heredity material in almost organism. Most of DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell. DNA molecule is made-up of nucleotide. Every single nucleotide is made up of three components:
1. Sugar
2. Nitrogenous base
3. Phosphate group
(a) A Sugar: In DNA, de-oxy ribose sugar is present.
(b) Nitrogen base: Four types of nitrogen bases are adenine (A), thymine (T), Guanine (G) and cytosine. The order of these bases is what that determines the DNA’s introduction or genetic code.
(C) Phosphate group: The phosphate group is a phosphorous atom with four oxygen atoms bonded to it.
The sugar-phosphate backbone forms the structural frame work of DNA. This backbone is composed of alternating sugar and phosphate group.


By the advanced studies and research, the scantiest do many modification means insertion removing of DNA (orgene) manually. Thus, they generate the field that relate with genes and DNA to improve and modify the traits of an organism, and is known as genetic engineering. The term ‘genetic engineering’ coined by JACK WILLIAMSON. But the father of genetic engineering is PAUL BERG. Because in 1973, he first invents the method of joining DNA from two different organism. He develops a first recombinant DNA molecule from monkey virus Sv40 with (lambda virus).

Application of Genetic Engineering:


  • Genetic engineering has application to medicine that include the manufacturing of drugs, creation of model animals that mimic human condition and gene therapy.
  • Genetic engineering is now also applied to human growth harmones, Follicle Stimulating Hormones (FSH) for treating infertility.
  • Monoclonal antibodies is main discovery of genetic engineering. This technique’s used for treatment of leukemia (cancer).


  • In agriculture, genetic engineering is used to create genetically modified crops or genetically modified organisms in order to produce genetically modified food.
  • The Genetically Modified Crops (GMC) has provided economic benefit to farness in different countries.
  • It allows us to achieve a faster growth rate.
  • It allows us to create genetic levels of pest resistance.

CONCLUSION: Genetic engineering may always be a controversial branch of the biotechnology industry. Its ability to provide the market place with new product for consumption from food to medicine, is an advantage that we can’t ignore.
But on the other hand some unforseen consequences that may not be positive that it create less nutritional value of plant and animals that grow on faster rate.
It may also decrease the diversity in species. So, overall, biotechnology or genetic engineering is a COMPLEMENT NOT A SUBSTITUTE.

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